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Business Administration

Faculty Research

From International New Ventures to Global Operating Firms: Market Expansion and Intellectual Property Strategies

It is unclear in theory and practice whether knowledge-based international new ventures ( KINVs) can develop into global operating firms within a limited period of time, how and with what IP strategies they can achieve such a success. Conducting an in-depth case study of Wacom, the global leader of graphical tablets, we address the process of this KNIV becoming a global player by adopting intellectual property strategies. We track its market expansion using longitudinal trademark data, patent data, and information on establishing foreign subsidiaries and financial performance. Our findings show that Wacom has achieved large scale global operations in lead and lag markets by integrating low–and high–commitment entry modes, and appropriate intellectual property strategies.

Article Citation:

Q. Li, Deli Yang, T. Yu, and S. Wu. 2015. From International New Ventures to Global Operating Firms: Market Expansion and Intellectual Property Strategies. Studies in the Science of Science 36 (8) 161-172.

A View from the Aisle Revisited: Delight and Outrage in the Classroom

This research explores marketing students’ emotional reactions to classroom encounters. We identify what types of critical incidents lead to specific emotional outcomes. The study included a sample of 1,208 marketing undergraduates. Findings confirm the viability of the taxonomies identified by Swanson and Davis (2000). We expand their framework to include the emotions of outrage and delight. Results confirm the conceptual distinctions among satisfaction, delight, dissatisfaction, and outrage, while suggesting that the absence of those factors that contribute to students’ dissatisfaction and outrage will not necessarily lead to their satisfaction and delight. Suggestions for responding are identified and associated with specific incident types.

Article Citation:

Scott Swanson, Carol Azab, and Charlene Davis. 2015. A View from the Aisle Revisited: Delight and Outrage in the Classroom. Marketing Education Review, Vol. 25 (3), pp. 215-232.

The Power of Triple Contexts on Customer-Based Brand Performance

Despite academic consensus on the concomitant power of triple contexts (country, industry and firm) for business, debates remain as to which context plays more salient a role to drive brand performance. This paper investigates how the triple contexts affect customers’ views of corporate brands and how such views impact on their assessment of brand performance (satisfaction, loyalty and perceived success). This is a comparative study of two search engines – Google and Baidu – from Chinese netizens’ perspective, based on the structural equation modeling of 2151 valid questionnaire responses. We found that the direct (firm) and indirect (country and industry) impact of triple contexts has explained 94% of the variations in netizens’ views. Comparatively, the leading local and foreign search engines have performed superbly, but significantly differently although the firm context has exerted equal impact on both firms. Rather than simultaneous impact, a chain relationship is evident toward brand performance. The findings can aid managers’ understanding of the triple-contextual relationships, their different degrees of influence on brand performance, and the comparative advantages and disadvantages of local and foreign brands in the international arena.

Article Citation:

Deli Yang, Mahmot Sonmez, Qinghai Li, and Yibing Duan. 2015. The Power of Triple Contexts on Customer-Based Brand Performance–A Comparative Study of Baidu and Google from Chinese Netizens’ Perspective. International Business Review, Vol. 25 (1), pp. 11-22

Green Brands: An Avenue to the Creation of Economic Value?

The research undertaken here attempts to test what in some quarters has become “conventional wisdom” ─ that investment in green or sustainability branding necessarily leads to the creation of shareholder value, even though statistical evidence of such a relationship has proven elusive.  Here GreenBiz/Interbrand’s 2012-2013 “best global green brands” data base was used to conduct a step-wise multiple regression analysis, where the rankings and selected financial metrics of Interbrand’s top 50 global green brands were regressed on the market-to-book multiples of each brand in order to determine whether being a leading global green brand is indeed a statistically significant avenue to the creation of shareholder value.  This is important research because of the attention GreenBiz/Interbrand’s Best Global Green Brands attract and because of the potential such findings have for influencing the actions of private sector management, investors, government officials and researchers engaged in the study of branding.

Article Citation:

Darryl Waldron. 2014. Green Brands: An Avenue to the Creation of Economi Value? International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 11 (3), pp. 130-144.

The Experience of Former Women Officials

In an effort to explore the shortage of female sport officials, we examined the experience of eight former female basketball officials from five geographically diverse states in the U.S. who voluntarily left the role. Specifically, we asked former female basketball officials to describe their workplace experiences. Utilizing a phenomenological approach and workplace incivility framework, the results indicated that the felt social inequity for female officials detracted from the participants experiencing a sense of community in the workplace, which ultimately led to their discontinuation in the role. Results indicate four key factors that created this uncivil work environment. An examination of the data revealed four major themes. Specifically the female basketball officials reported experiencing a Lack of Mutual Respect from male counterparts; Perceived Inequity of Policies; a Lack of Role Modeling and Mentoring for and from female officials; and experiencing more Gendered Abuse than did their male counterparts. The combination of these four factors exacerbated the female officials' inability to connect to the officiating community and led to their withdrawal from the role. The results further indicate that women officials likely threatened the hegemonic characteristics of a sport setting. Although females have made great strides in terms of sport participation, the practical implications of this research suggest that understanding females in workplace roles, such as officiating, is vital if social equity is to be achieved in the sporting community.

Article Citation:

Jacob K. Tingle, Stacy Warner, and Pamm Kellett. 2014. The Experience of Former Women Officials and the Impact on the Sporting Community. Sex Roles, Vol. 71 (1-2), pp. 7-20.

Home Ownership Decisions and Acculturation of Foreign-Born Populations Living in Spain

The study of immigrants' adaptation to host countries is a complex task that requires the consideration of multiple sociological issues encapsulated in the concept of acculturation. In the face of this, the decision to own a home involves a long-term perspective, associated with a wide array of determinants expressing the degree of success of immigration projects. Thus, this article uses homeownership in the host country to analyze the acculturation process of immigrants in Spain. We conclude that being foreign-born significantly reduces the likelihood of being a homeowner. Moreover, this feature represents the key variable explaining the significantly low homeownership rate exhibited among immigrants compared to natives in Spain. We argue that acculturation processes, when using the homeownership approach, rely on information-acquisition processes, which in turn present distinct patterns by immigrants' region-of-origin.

Article Citation:

Carlos Iglesias and Mario Gonzalez-Fuentes. 2014. Decisiones de Tenencia de Vivienda y Aculturación de la Población Extranjera Residente en España. El Trimestre Económico.

Officiating Attrition: The Experiences of Referees Via a Sport Development Lens

Referees are key sport personnel who have important responsibilities both on- and off- the field. Organized competition would not survive without referees, yet little is known about what cause referees to discontinue in the role. This research examines the experiences of former referees so that managers may better understand strategies that might encourage more referees to be retained. Fifteen previous basketball referees were interviewed about their refereeing experience. Ten themes emerged that were related to the sport development stages of referee recruitment, referee retention, and referee advancement. The results indicate that issues experienced during the retention phase (Problematic Social Interaction, Training/Mentoring, and Lack of Referee Community) and then at the advancing stage (Lack of Administrator Consideration, Administrator Decision Making, and Sport Policies) are linked to eventual departure from the role. Interestingly, off-court factors were reported as more influential in the decision to leave. Managerial strategies and implications are discussed.

Article Citation:

Stacy Warner, Jacob K. Tingle, Pamm Kellett. 2013. Officiating Attrition: The Experiences of Referees Via a Sport Development Lens. Journal of Sport Management, Vol. 27, pp. 316-328.

Integration and Divergence of Patent Systems Across National and International Institutions

Based on a framework grounded in the institution-based view, this paper addresses the extent of global patent system integration and development. Our findings suggest that nations' patent systems have yet 'met' the 'international standards', despite national and international endeavor toward this goal. The impact of international institutions on national institutions is reflected in the process rather than the outcome. Among the three components of patent systems across 88 nations, conformity is the strongest for 'patent mechanism', operations is the most diverse for 'patent administration' and 'patent enforcement' does not form a cross-nation divide due to most nations being moderate enforcers.

Article Citation:

Deli Yang and Mahmut Sonmez. 2013. Integration and Divergence of Patent Systems across National and International Institutions. Journal of World Business Vol. 48 (4), pp. 527-538.

Developing a Student Employee Leadership Program

Outstanding student employees are essential for campus recreation programs to achieve organizational goals. To that end, this study examined the effectiveness of a leadership development program in which three groups of campus recreation (rec sports) student employees participated at various levels in the following: on campus training, an off-site retreat, a scavenger hunt, and biweekly meetings. Using a quasi-experimental design, data were collected in two phases from 51 students and measured the growth of each student's leadership capabilities as reported using the Student Leadership Practices Inventory. Statistical analyses revealed that group membership did significantly affect growth in the student's leadership capacity. Campus recreation programs are increasingly held accountable and rec sports professionals must understand assessment is vital. The results of this study reveal that rec sports professionals can impact the development of student leaders. Specifically, the findings indicate that growth does not occur with condensed training. Indeed lasting, meaningful growth transpires only when leadership lessons are embedded using a sustained approach. Implications for research and practice are presented.

Article Citation:

Jacob K. Tingle, Christina Cooney, Seth E. Asbury, Sheldon Tate. 2013. Developing a Student Employee Leadership Program: The Importance of Evaluating Effectiveness. Recreational Sports Journal, Vol. 37(1), pp. 2-13.

Home Ownership as a Sign of an Immigrant's Consumer Acculturation

One of the limitations highlighted by the consumer acculturation literature is the lack of empirical research to identify better constructs or indicators of consumer acculturation. In this article, the use of homeownership by immigrants in the host society is proposed as an indicator of advanced consumer acculturation. The decision to own a home by a minority group, such as immigrants, represents a key landmark in the process of adaptation to the new culture and a commitment with the host country's values and culture. The empirical case used is the immigrant population of Spain. The sharp rise in its foreign-born population during the last decade and the significantly higher homeownership rates of natives in comparison with other countries makes the Spanish scenario a relevant case study. The results obtained show homeownership is linked to features associated with highly acculturated consumers. Moreover, the analysis conducted reveals important differences in the way immigrants from different origins advance in their consumer acculturation processes and suggest distinct approaches when marketing to these groups.

Article Citation:

Mario Gonzalez-Fuentes. 2013. Homeownership as a sign of an immigrant's consumer acculturation: The role of region-of-origin, Journal of Global Marketing, Vol. 26 (2), pp. 80-97.

The Contribution of Social Simulation in the Advancement of Marketing Issues and Challenges

For some years now, marketers have been praising for a more holistic approach of a company's marketing efforts across all areas. However, traditional models show serious limitations to address the complexities of managing all of a company's touch points with a customer. Agent-based modeling (ABM) has opened the door to explore the unfolding behaviors and outputs of an increasingly connected and interactive marketplace. The contribution of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, it provides researchers with a state-of-the-art repository for this strand of research. This facilitates the identification of relevant gaps in the literature and future research avenues. Second, it contributes to assess the way ABM has improved our understanding of the dynamics of markets and its participants when marketing strategies are implemented. Both goals aim at showing the various ways that social simulation has expanded our understanding of marketing and the future research opportunities for both, marketing and computer scientists.

Article Citation:

Mario Gonzalez-Fuentes. 2013. The Contribution of Social Simulation in the Advancement of Marketing Issues and Challenges, International Journal of Agent Technologies and Systems, Vol. 5(1), pp. 19-31.

Giving Cash Its Strategic Due: Shareholder Value Depends On It

This article offers information on a study conducted to examine the link between cash management and the creation of shareholder value. It mentions that a cross-sectional analysis of Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 companies was done and the strength and nature of the relationship between creation of shareholder value and liquidity was established. The results support the hypothesis that the effectiveness of managing liquidity determines shareholder value.

Article Citation:

Darryl Waldron. 2013. Giving Cash Its Strategic Due: Shareholder Value Depends On It. Review of Business, Vol. 33 (2), pp. 67-79.

Transformational Learning in Business Education

In this paper, we posit experiential learning projects in business as a valuable alternative to internships to meet the new AACSB standards for accreditation. While internships have traditionally been used as the main method to provide hands-on learning experiences for students in business schools, their effective implementation imposes stringent demands on faculty, curriculum, and program resources. The pedagogical and administrative benefits of experiential learning projects (ELP) are analyzed using the Kolb model and the literature on learning. We illustrate the versatility of the ELP learning tool by describing two very different applications currently in use at a small private university and advance guidelines for the effective implementation and assessment of experiential learning projects in business curricula.

Article Citation:

Rita D. Kosnik, Jacob K. Tingle, and Edwin L. Blanton. 2013. Transformational Learning in Business Education: The Pivotal Role of Experiential Learning Projects. American Journal of Business Education, Vol. 6 (6), pp. 613-630.

Study of Multinational Managers' Perception of Global Brands in China

Prior research has examined consumer intentions to purchase fakes, branding strategies and anti-counterfeiting actions, but little attention seems to have been paid to the role of consumers' ability to discern fakes and branding strategies against counterfeiting. This article, thus, based on a study of 128 multinational managers' experience in China, examines these inter-relationships. As a result, we address how knowledgeable and experienced managers in branding, consumer consumption and anti-counterfeiting effort perceive consumers' ability to discriminate fakes from originals interacts with branding strategies, and how such relationship influences the effectiveness of anti-counterfeiting effort. Our findings suggest that consumer discrimination itself has no significant effect on anti-counterfeiting success. However, it significantly interacts with branding strategies to predict a means to mitigate brand damage. That is, consumers' ability to discriminate fakes from originals appears to undermine efforts to mitigate brand damage from counterfeiting, at least in China when branding is based on improving product features or advertising and promotion. However, if branding emphasizes after sales service, consumers' ability to discriminate was found to enhance firms' ability to limit counterfeiting damage to brands. Such interactions, however, did not help stop counterfeiting, except that branding based on reliability appears to have such a positive effect.

Article Citation:

Mahmut Sonmez, Deli Yang, and Gerald Fryxell. 2013. Interactive Role of Consumer Discrimination and Branding against Counterfeiting: A Study of Multinational Managers' Perception of Global Brands in China. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 115 (1), pp.195-211

When Does Management’s Support for a Change Translate to Perceptions of Fair Treatment?

Organizational change creates uncertainty and stimulates fairness judgments of employees, which are important determinants of employee attitudes and behaviors. This study investigated the antecedents of employees’ change-related fairness perceptions. Drawing on change implementation literature, attribution theory, and personality research, the authors examined how the effect of management’s change support on individuals’ change fairness perceptions is moderated by change attributions and employees’ conscientiousness level. Using multilevel data from 693 employees in 29 organizations engaged in a variety of changes, hierarchical linear modeling analysis indicated that the relationships between managements’ change support and individual employees’ change fairness perceptions were positive in most conditions. The exception was when the change was externally attributed to conditions not controllable by the management and when the affected employees had lower levels of conscientiousness.

Article Citation:

Yi Liu, Steven Caldwell, Donald Fedor, and David Herold. When Does Management’s Support for a Change Translate to Perceptions of Fair Treatment? The Moderating Roles of Change Attributions and Conscientiousness. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Vol. 48 (4), pp. 441-462.

Delight and Outrage In the Performing Arts: A Critical Incidence Analysis

Marketers are being challenged not merely to satisfy customers but to delight them. In order to accomplish (avoid) customer delight (outrage), the factors that create these emotions must first be isolated and identified. The present study uses the critical incident technique to identify the interpersonal and non-interpersonal factors associated with creating delight or outrage in a performing arts setting. Findings provide rich contextualization of important quality factors and illustrate the key role played by employees in managing the co-consumption process. In addition, the identified factors are associated with the commitment measures of word-of-mouth behavior, repatronage intentions, and donation intentions.

Article Citation:

J. Charlene Davis and Scott R. Swanson. 2012. Delight and Outrage In the Performing Arts: A Critical Incidence Analysis. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 20 (3), pp. 263-278.

Patent Trolls: Legit Enforcers or Harassers?

Since the turn of the century, 'patent trolls' have emerged as one of the most topical debates among patent holders. However, nearly ten years later, stakeholders are still unable to reach consensus as to the 'right' or 'wrong' of trolls. Against this backdrop, our debates open with the landmark case of Blackberry between RIM and NTP to provide thoughts as to whether NTP is considered a troll. Then there is a focus on some conceptual issues surrounding patent trolls, and its origin citing relevant mini-cases. This column also lays out the fierce arguments for or against patent trolling among scholars and practitioners and reasoning for the trolling existence. The debates end with some reflections on the implication of patent trolling phenomena on patent systems, particularly the U.S. structure, subsequently, proposing some relevant solutions.

Article Citation:

Deli Yang. 2012. Patent Trolls: Legit Enforcers or Harassers? Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, Vol. 17 (6), pp. 573-577.

Arm's Length and Captive Transactions: Patent-Based View of Control in Internationalization

This conceptual paper responds to the need for examining the role of patent control over internationalization. It proposes the patent-based strategy of control, in other words, how 3Cs – complementarity, competitiveness, and conditions – impact the strategic decision on corporate control over the patent; thereby the option of commercialization between arm's length and captive transactions. It demonstrates the multiple theoretical natures of business strategies; emphasizes how strategic fit can impact the decision on control; addresses patents as intangible assets that form a comparative and competitive advantage rather than only as a legal right and that have bearing on strategic decision making. The paper proposes that the intention of high control over a patent drives the owner to opt for captive transactions; low control arm's length transactions. Nonetheless, the challenge lies before the decision is made; managers need to assess the 'strategic fit' elements that directly impact on the extent of control.

Article Citation:

Deli Yang. 2012. Arm's Length and Captive Transactions: Patent-Based View of Control in Internationalization. International Business Review, Vol 21 (4), pp. 575-587.